What Are Fire Hydrant? Everything You Need to Know

When it comes to emergency situations, it’s important to have tools and resources readily available to help mitigate damage and protect people from harm. One of the most recognizable resources in cities and towns across the world are fire hydrants.

These bright-red fixtures, stationed at regular intervals along streets and sidewalks, are crucial for firefighters to access water quickly in the event of a fire.

But what exactly are fire hydrants, and how do they work? In this article, we’ll take a closer look at these important devices, and uses of it, and function.

What Are Fire Hydrant?

At its core, a fire hydrant is a pipe system that is connected to a municipal water supply. It is typically located on the side of the road, near the curb, and is marked by a bright red or yellow metal post or cap.

The post/cap is usually visible from a distance and acts as a signpost for firefighters in case of an emergency.

When a fire breaks out, firefighters use the fire hydrant to tap into the municipal water supply.

They attach a hose to the hydrant and then connect the other end of the hose to the fire engine.

The water is then pumped from the hydrant to the fire engine, allowing firefighters to extinguish the fire.

What Are Fire Hydrant

Fire hydrants are also equipped with a variety of other features that make them useful during an emergency.

For example, they often have a built-in pressure gauge that indicates the water pressure available at the hydrant.

Firefighters can use this information to determine how much water they can draw from the hydrant and how far they can spray it.

Another important feature of fire hydrants is their ability to shut off the water supply.

In case of a malfunction or a break in the water main, firefighters can use the hydrant’s shut-off valve to isolate the problem and prevent further damage.

How to Do Fire Hydrant Work

Fire hydrants are crucial components of a city or town’s water supply system, providing a readily available source of water for firefighting in the event of a fire emergency.

Here’s a general overview of how fire hydrants work:

Water Supply: Fire hydrants are connected to a network of underground water pipes that are fed by the local water supply system.

These pipes typically carry water from a nearby water treatment plant or reservoir.

Underground Valve: At the base of a fire hydrant, there is a valve that is connected to the underground water pipe.

This valve can be opened or closed to control the flow of water to the hydrant. When the valve is closed, water cannot flow through the hydrant.

Above-Ground Components: Above ground, a typical fire hydrant consists of a vertical standpipe with a nozzle or outlet at the top, which is typically covered by a cap or plug to prevent debris from entering the hydrant.

A circular valve wheel or operating nut can also be turned using a special hydrant wrench to open or close the underground valve.

Fire Hose Connection: Firefighters can connect their hoses to the nozzle or outlet on the hydrant, allowing them to draw water from the hydrant to fight fires.

Fire hydrants are designed with standardized threads and connections to ensure compatibility with firefighting equipment.

Water Flow: When the underground valve is opened using a hydrant wrench, water flows from the underground water pipe, through the valve, and out of the nozzle or outlet, providing a high-pressure water source that can be used to extinguish fires.

Pressure Regulation: Fire hydrants are designed to maintain a certain pressure in the water supply system to ensure effective firefighting.

The water pressure is regulated by adjusting the valve at the base of the hydrant, which controls the flow of water.

Maintenance: Fire hydrants require regular maintenance, including periodic inspection, lubrication of valve components, and flushing of water lines to remove sediment or debris that may accumulate over time and affect their performance.

Types Of Fire Hydrants

Several types of fire hydrants are commonly used in different regions and situations. The main types of fire hydrants include:

Dry Barrel Hydrant: The main valve is located below the frost line in dry barrel hydrants, typically in a dry or warm underground environment.

The hydrant barrel is empty, and the water is only released when the hydrant is opened and the main valve is activated.

Dry barrel hydrants are commonly used in regions with cold climates to prevent water from freezing in the hydrant and causing damage.

Wet Barrel Hydrant: In wet barrel hydrants, the main valve is located above the ground, and the hydrant barrel is always filled with water.

Wet barrel hydrants are typically used in regions with warmer climates where freezing is not a concern.

Pillar Hydrant: Pillar hydrants, also known as post hydrants or post indicator valves (PIV), are larger and taller than traditional fire hydrants.

They are typically installed in areas where the water main is located at a significant depth, such as industrial complexes, airports, or large commercial buildings.

Pillar hydrants are operated using a large operating nut on top of the hydrant, which controls the main valve.

High-Pressure Hydrant: High-pressure hydrants are designed to provide water at higher pressure for firefighting purposes.

They are typically used in areas where high-rise buildings or special hazards require higher water pressure to fight fires effectively.

Monitor Nozzle Hydrant: Monitor nozzle hydrants are specialized hydrants equipped with a monitor nozzle or water cannon, allowing for a controlled and directional discharge of water.

These hydrants are commonly used in industrial settings or for firefighting operations requiring targeted water flow, such as dealing with hazardous materials fires or protecting specific areas.

Specialized Hydrants: There are also other specialized types of fire hydrants, such as pressure-reducing hydrants, which are used to reduce water pressure in certain areas of a water supply system, and airport hydrants, which are specifically designed for firefighting operations at airports and are connected to a separate water supply system.

Fire Hydrant Advantages

Advantages of fire hydrants and why they are so essential.

Quick Access to Water

Fire hydrants provide quick access to water in case of an emergency. Firefighters can easily connect their hoses to a fire hydrant and begin fighting the fire.

This is especially important in densely populated areas where there may be limited access to water sources.

Reliable Water Supply

Fire hydrants are connected to the municipal water supply, which means that they provide a reliable water source for firefighters.

This is important because fires can quickly spread and become out of control.

Having a reliable source of water can mean the difference between containing a fire and watching it spread.

Easy to Identify

Fire hydrants are easy to identify, thanks to their bright red color and distinctive shape. This makes them easy to find in an emergency, saving precious time when responding to a fire.


Fire hydrants require regular maintenance to ensure that they are in good working order.

This includes flushing out the system to remove debris and checking the valves to ensure they are working properly. Regular maintenance ensures that fire hydrants are ready to use when they are needed.


Fire hydrants are a cost-effective way to provide water access in an emergency.

They are much cheaper than installing a dedicated fire suppression system for every building in a community. Fire hydrants can also be used for other purposes, such as flushing out water mains, which makes them even more cost-effective.

Why Are Fire Hydrants Important?

Fire hydrants play a critical role in firefighting and fire protection efforts, making them extremely important for several reasons:

Fire Suppression: Fire hydrants provide a readily available water source for firefighters to extinguish fires quickly.

They allow firefighters to connect their hoses and access a high-pressure water supply, enabling them to effectively combat fires and prevent them from spreading.

Fire hydrants are strategically located throughout cities and towns, providing a crucial water supply network that supports firefighting operations.

Public Safety: Fire hydrants help protect the safety of the public by providing a reliable source of water for firefighting.

In the event of a fire emergency, firefighters can use fire hydrants to quickly respond and suppress fires, minimizing the risk to lives, property, and the surrounding environment.

Property Protection: Fire hydrants are essential for protecting properties, including residential, commercial, and industrial buildings.

They provide a means to deliver large volumes of water to fight fires, reducing the potential damage caused by fire and smoke.

Rapid access to water through fire hydrants can help prevent fires from spreading and minimize property loss.

Insurance Requirements: Many insurance companies require properties to have adequate fire protection measures in place, including access to fire hydrants.

Having functional fire hydrants on or near a property can help meet insurance requirements, which can impact insurance premiums and coverage.

Code Compliance: Fire hydrants are typically installed and maintained in accordance with local building codes and fire protection regulations.

Compliance with these codes is important for ensuring public safety and meeting legal requirements.

Emergency Preparedness: Fire hydrants are critical to emergency preparedness and response plans.

They are essential infrastructure for firefighting operations during disasters or emergencies, such as wildfires, earthquakes, or other catastrophic events.

Community Resilience: Fire hydrants are vital to a community’s resilience against fires.

They provide the necessary resources for firefighters to respond quickly and effectively to fires, helping to protect the community’s infrastructure, resources, and overall well-being.

How Do Firefighters Use Fire Hydrants?

Firefighters use fire hydrants to connect to the municipal water supply when they need to extinguish a fire.

The water supply is typically pressurized and can deliver large volumes of water quickly, making it an ideal source for firefighting.

To use a fire hydrant, firefighters first need to locate it. Once they’ve found it, they’ll need to remove the cap on the hydrant, which covers the valve controlling the water flow.

This can be a difficult job because the cap is usually heavy and requires a special tool to remove. Once the cap is off, firefighters will attach a hose to the valve and turn it on.

Water will then flow through the hose and into the fire truck or other firefighting equipment.

Firefighters must be careful when using fire hydrants.

They need to make sure that the water pressure isn’t too high, which could damage the equipment or cause injury to the firefighters.

They also need to ensure the water supply is sufficient to extinguish the fire.

If the water supply is too low, firefighters may need to use multiple hydrants or bring in additional water sources.

Difference Between Fire Hydrant And Sprinkler System

Fire hydrants and sprinkler systems are both important components of fire protection systems, but they have different purposes and distinct differences.

Here are the main differences between fire hydrants and sprinkler systems:

Fire Hydrant:

Water Supply: Fire hydrants are outdoor fixtures connected to a public or private water supply system.

They provide a connection point for firefighters to access water for firefighting operations.

Fire hydrants are typically located on streets, sidewalks, or other accessible areas and are connected to an underground water distribution network.

Manual Operation: Fire hydrants are operated manually by firefighters using specialized tools, such as hydrant wrenches, to open and close the hydrant’s valves.

Firefighters connect hoses to the hydrant outlets to access the water supply and control the water flow.

Water Volume: Fire hydrants are designed to provide a high volume of water for firefighting purposes.

They are typically capable of delivering large amounts of water at high pressures to extinguish fires efficiently.

Outdoor Use: Fire hydrants are primarily designed for outdoor use and are installed in public areas or private properties that require firefighting access. They are not typically used indoors or in confined spaces.

Sprinkler System:

Fire Detection and Suppression: Sprinkler systems are indoor fire protection systems that are designed to detect and suppress fires.

They are installed inside buildings, typically composed of pipes, sprinkler heads, and a control panel.

When the system detects a fire, the sprinkler heads release water to extinguish the fire or control its spread.

Automatic Operation: Sprinkler systems are automated and do not require manual operation.

They are activated automatically by heat-sensitive devices, such as sprinkler heads, that respond to the heat of a fire and release water.

Water Distribution: Sprinkler systems are designed to distribute water evenly over the area protected by the system.

The water is delivered through sprinkler heads that are strategically located throughout the building, and each sprinkler head operates independently, releasing water only in the area where a fire is detected.

Indoor Use: Sprinkler systems are designed for indoor use and are typically installed in commercial buildings, industrial facilities, and residential properties. They are not typically used outdoors or in open spaces.

Water Conservation: Sprinkler systems are designed to minimize water usage by releasing water only in the area where a fire is detected, which helps conserve water compared to fire hydrants that provide a continuous water flow.

Where To Install Fire Hydrant

Fire hydrants are typically installed in strategic locations to ensure efficient access to water for firefighting purposes.

The specific requirements for fire hydrant installation may vary depending on local building codes, fire department regulations, and the area’s specific needs.

However, here are some general guidelines for where fire hydrants are commonly installed:

Along Streets and Roadways: Fire hydrants are typically installed along streets and roadways to provide easy access for fire trucks.

They are typically placed near intersections or at regular intervals along the street to ensure adequate coverage for firefighting operations.

Near Buildings and High-Risk Areas: Fire hydrants are often installed in close proximity to buildings or areas that are considered high-risk for fires, such as commercial or industrial buildings, schools, hospitals, warehouses, and other structures with a high occupancy or fire hazard.

Placing fire hydrants near these areas ensures quick access to water in case of a fire emergency.

Industrial Areas: Fire hydrants are commonly installed in industrial areas where there may be a higher risk of fires due to the nature of the operations, presence of flammable materials, or other factors.

These areas may have specific fire hydrant spacing and placement requirements to ensure adequate fire protection.

Residential Areas: Fire hydrants may be installed in residential areas, particularly in densely populated urban or suburban areas, to provide access to water for firefighting in case of a fire emergency.

Open Spaces: Fire hydrants may be installed in open spaces, such as parks, sports fields, or other public areas, to provide firefighting capabilities in case of fires in these areas.

Water Distribution Networks: Fire hydrants are typically installed as part of a water distribution network, including water mains, valves, and other components, to ensure a reliable and sufficient water supply for firefighting operations.

Why Fire Hydrants Have Different Colors

Fire hydrants are painted different colors to indicate their flow rate or water availability, which can be useful information for firefighters and other emergency responders during firefighting operations.

The color coding of fire hydrants may vary depending on the region or country, but here are some common color codes:

Red: Red-colored fire hydrants usually indicate that the hydrant has a high flow rate, typically more than 1500 gallons per minute (GPM).

These hydrants are typically connected to larger water mains and are capable of providing a higher volume of water, making them suitable for firefighting operations that require a significant amount of water.

Orange: Orange-colored fire hydrants usually indicate that the hydrant has a moderate flow rate, typically between 500-1500 GPM.

These hydrants are connected to medium-sized water mains and can provide a moderate volume of water, suitable for firefighting operations that require a moderate amount of water.

Green: Green-colored fire hydrants usually indicate that the hydrant has a low flow rate, typically less than 500 GPM.

These hydrants are connected to smaller water mains and can provide a lower volume of water, suitable for firefighting operations requiring a smaller amount of water.

Blue: Blue-colored fire hydrants may indicate that the hydrant is connected to a non-potable water source, such as reclaimed water, which is treated wastewater that is not suitable for drinking.

Blue hydrants may be used in areas where non-potable water is available for firefighting operations, street cleaning, or other non-drinking water uses.

Purple: Purple-colored fire hydrants may indicate that the hydrant is connected to a water source dedicated to firefighting purposes only.

These hydrants may be used in areas where a separate water supply is designated exclusively for firefighting operations, ensuring that a reliable water source is available for emergencies.

How Do You Open A Fire Hydrant?

If you need to open a fire hydrant for authorized purposes, here are the general steps:

Obtain permission: If you are not a firefighter or authorized personnel, you must first obtain permission from your local water authority or fire department before opening a fire hydrant.

Locate the fire hydrant: Fire hydrants are typically located along the side of the road and marked with a blue reflective sign.

Clear the area: Make sure the area around the fire hydrant is clear of obstructions and parked cars.

Remove the caps: Fire hydrants typically have two caps, a smaller one and a larger one. Use a hydrant wrench to remove the larger cap.

Open the valve: Use the hydrant wrench to turn the valve counterclockwise until it is fully open. Be sure to open the valve slowly to prevent damage to the water mains.

Control the flow: Once the valve is open, you can control the flow of water by adjusting the nozzle. Be sure to use a nozzle that is compatible with the fire hydrant.

Close the valve: When you are finished using the fire hydrant, use the hydrant wrench to close the valve by turning it clockwise until it is fully closed.

Replace the caps: After closing the valve, replace the larger and smaller caps to prevent debris from entering the hydrant.

Note: It is important to follow proper safety procedures when using a fire hydrant, including wearing appropriate personal protective equipment and ensuring that the water flow does not pose a risk to nearby people or property.

How To Use Fire Hydrant When To Use It?

Trained firefighters typically use fire hydrants during firefighting operations to access a water supply for extinguishing fires.

Proper usage of fire hydrants is critical to ensure effective firefighting and minimize damage. Here are the general steps on how to use a fire hydrant:

Assess the Situation: Before using a fire hydrant, assess the situation and determine the appropriate firefighting strategy.

Evaluate the type and size of the fire, the location of the fire, and the availability of other firefighting resources.

Gather Necessary Equipment: Firefighters will need to gather the necessary equipment, including hydrant wrenches, hoses, nozzles, and other firefighting tools, to operate the fire hydrant properly.

Clear the Area: Ensure that the area around the fire hydrant is clear of any obstacles, debris, or vehicles to allow easy access to the hydrant.

Open the Hydrant: Use a hydrant wrench to open the hydrant valve. The hydrant wrench turns the operating nut on the hydrant counterclockwise to open the valve.

This allows water to flow from the hydrant and into the connected hoses.

Connect Hoses: Connect hoses to the hydrant outlets using appropriate fittings and couplings. Make sure the connections are secure and leak-free.

Control Water Flow: Once the hoses are connected, control the water flow using the hydrant valve and nozzle. Firefighters can adjust the flow rate and pressure based on the needs of the firefighting operation.

Fight the Fire: Use the water supply from the fire hydrant to extinguish the fire. Direct the water stream from the nozzle towards the base of the fire, using appropriate firefighting techniques and tactics.

Close the Hydrant: After the firefighting operation is complete, close the hydrant valve using the hydrant wrench by turning the operating nut clockwise. Make sure the valve is fully closed to prevent water wastage or damage to the hydrant.

Properly Drain and Store Equipment: After closing the hydrant, properly drain the hoses, nozzles, and other equipment to prevent freezing or damage. Store the equipment in the appropriate location.


Fire hydrants are critical components of fire protection systems that provide access to a reliable water supply for firefighting operations.

They are strategically installed in various locations to ensure quick and efficient access to water during fire emergencies.

Trained firefighters typically use fire hydrants to connect hoses and nozzles to access water and extinguish fires effectively.

Compliance with local regulations and guidelines, regular maintenance, and proper personnel training is important for the reliable operation and effectiveness of fire hydrants in protecting lives and property from fires.